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” m not hustling i m biology and medicine videos please make sure to subscribe join join the forman group for the latest videos please visit facebook armando historian in this we are going to look at control of respiration now the medullary respiratory centers are control respiration. The medullary respiratory centers are made up of the ventral and dorsal groups. The ventral group is responsible for the rhythmic city you can say of breathing. If that didn t all make sense let s look at a diagram.
So here i m drawing the brain. If we zoom into the brainstem region here. We can locate where the medulla oblongata is here. I m drawing three red circles.
The two red circles here make up the medullary respiratory center. Which is made up of the ventral and dorsal respiratory groups the ventral being the front and the dorsal being the back. The dorsal group is responsible for inspiration. The diaphragm and the ventral.
One is responsible for the rhythmicity of breathing..
But then you have this other rest result. But then you have this other respiratory center located in the pons known as the pandu universitary center the pointing respiratory center will interact with the medulla respiratory center to smooth respiration it will provide tonic input to the medullary network here to help coordinate smooth respiratory rhythm. So they will send signals to here and then the medulla research centers will work together and then will send signals for inspiration and exploration. So to understand how it sends signals for inspiration and exploration.
Let us look at the thorax. So here. I am. Drawing.
The thorax. Which is made up of the ribs here as well as the sternum here now within the thorax. We find the lungs beneath the lungs. We have an important muscle known as the diaphragm.
The diaphragm is one is one of the important muscles in respiration and then you have another important muscle in respiration..
Which are known as the intercostal muscles. Which run between the ribs here i m drawing the trachea which connect the larynx to the lungs so in a very simplified way the rescue center will send impulses to the muscles of the lungs to trigger inspiration or expiration. So for example here. We have impulses being sent via neurons to the intercostal muscles to close the inspiration.
So the ribs will rise and the impulses are also being sent to the diaphragm to cause inspiration. So the diaphragm will descend the respiratory center will send impulses to cause inspiration and expiration the more the quicker the impulse the faster the breathing the slower the impulse the slower the breathing and that s the important concept to understand now let us see what can influence the respiratory center. And so what can increase our respiration so increase breathing and what can suppress breathing so slow down breathing firstly. We have the higher centers of the brain.
Which which where we can have voluntary control. So as we know we have some control over our breathing. We can stop breathing for a while before our how before the brain just takes over the higher centers of the brain are also important for the perception of pain emotion and temperature. And so all these factors can influence the respiratory rate.
So they will firstly either stimulate or suppress the pontine respiratory center..
Which then will stimulate or suppress the medullary respiratory center and respiration itself. But the main a regulator or influencer of respiration will be the peripheral chemoreceptors. Which are located in the carotid. Na arctic bodies they detect changes in the blood kim changes in the blood.
So for example if they detect a decrease in oxygen a decrease in blood ph. Which means an increase in hydrogen ions and an increase in up in co2. This will stimulate or trigger. The chemoreceptors located here in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies.
And they will stimulate these keogh receptors to stimulate the rest recenter and so when the respiratory center is stimulated. There will be a quicker respiratory rate. So you will breathe in and breathe out quicker and so you can breathe in more oxygen and you can breathe out more carbon dioxide to neutralize everything there are also chemo receptors located in the medulla known as central chemoreceptors. The medulla is chemo chemo receptors do exactly the same thing they can detect changes in ph a decrease in ph for example an increase in co2 will stimulate the chemo receptors to send to stimulate the respiratory center so that you could breathe faster and thereby breathing out more carbon dioxide and inhaling more oxygen you also have receptors in your muscles and in your joints and these will be stimulated when you exercise and so when you exercise these receptors will stimulate the respiratory center.
So you can breathe quicker and it s important to breathe quicker when you exercise so you can breathe so that you can take in more oxygen..
And you can blow out all the acid that has built up and finally you have things in your lungs. That can regulate the respiratory center. They can influence the respiratory center in the brain stem firstly you have things called irritant receptors. Which are receptors that are protective in the lungs that help essentially blow off the irritant and so when they are stimulated.
They will suppress the respiratory center to slow down respiration and then you have stretch receptors in the lungs. Which cause the hearing braver reflex. A reflex that is protective. It s a protective reflex initiated by extreme over inflation of the lungs and so when these stretch receptors are stimulated initiated.
They will suppress respirations so they will slow down the respiratory rate. Hope you ” ..
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