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“To another video from explaining computers comm this time. I m going to talk about about the pcie slots that we use to connect graphics cards and other expansion cards our computer motherboards now i m going to start out with a little bit of the history of motherboard slots to place pcie in context. And that on move on to talk about pcie lanes and slot sizes and versions. And all that other handy to know kind of stuff in the 1980s early ibm pcs came with expansion stops known as the xt or 18.
Thus. However these were later renamed isa or industry. Standard architecture. Slots and here we ve got a 1989 motherboard with eight is n slots and think about is a slots is they were used to connect almost everything to the computer motherboard not just graphics cards.
But all the ports on the computer. Or the storage interfaces you had a card for example like this one which gives you the disk interfaces and parallel ports and serial ports. That we can find them there so everything connected initially via iose slots. Now the only problem was as pc.
Technology. Advanced is a start weren t fast enough for the latest graphics and other cards and therefore. An extended version of is a called a is a was introduced in 1988. As well as an interface called the vesa local bus.
All vlb in 1992. However neither of these became that popular it s in 1992. We also saw the introduction of the peripheral component interconnect or pci expansion slot as we can see on this 1997. Motherboard that sometime.
We had motherboards with both the pci slots. We got four of these here as well as a is a slots and this board also has an agp slot an accelerated graphics port slow and this was a graphics card only interface on motherboards this was launched in 1996 and it evolved into many different incompatible versions for example here. We ve got another motherboard. Which has got an agp start and fiver pci slots as you can see this is clearly a different type of slot to the previous agp port we saw on the previous board.
It s longer. This is an agp x. 8. Slot.
An agp pro slot and back in the 90s. When we had all these agp ports and they constantly revolving now to be very careful to get the right graphics card to match the right slot. They had different voltages. It wasn t that difficult to blow things up by putting the wrong agp card into the wrong kgp port.
However in 2004 things started to get easier with a launch of pcie or peripheral component. Interconnect xpress as a higher speed version of pci. And as we can see on this far more recent motherboard pcie thoughts can come in different sizes. So here for example.
We ve got. 3. Pcie x 1..
Slots. And one pcie x 16 slot. The sort of slotted lan. We put a graphics card in and to explain the differences between these type of slots and now need to tell you about how pcie handles data data is communicated to and from pcie slots in what are called lanes and so i thought it d be nice to imagine that data as a fleet of little cars.
And so here. We have one lane of cars traveling to a pcie slot. It s eight times one stop because as one lane of cars and each car here represents a fixed quantity of data. But if we want to get more data to the card and we can t increase the speed of the cars.
What we can do is to add more lanes so if we increase number of lanes by a factor of four when other words would move to pcie times four. We get four times as many vehicles and hence four times. The data transfer rate being accommodated and if we increase again to pcie times. 8.
And then pcie times 16. We double and double again. The data is fruitful to the pcie slot. Without having to increase the speed of its underlying electronics.
Now. Although. Pcie increases speed by adding lanes since 2004. That pcie standard has been.
Upgraded several times. With the different versions known. As. Pcie.
10. 20. 30 and 40. Each of these has a lane speed.
Which is roughly double that of the previous generation. So making our little cars move twice as fast with each pcie version upgrade here in this table you can see all of the theoretical speeds attainable with all overcurrent pcie versions using one four eight or sixteen lanes note that 32 times pcie slots and expansion cards with 32 lanes do. Exist but they re very rare. Indeed note also with a new pcie 50.
Standard is expected to be finalized in 2019 with likely speed as shown in italics in the last line of the table and yes a 16 times pcie 50. Card will be very fast indeed in most instances the physical size of a pcie slot. Indicates. His number of lanes.
So for example. If we look at this fairly modern motherboard. Which has got one two three four pcie slots and three pci slots..
You ll see that we ve got a slot here and here. Which our pcie times. One they ve got one lane. And we ve got two slot here.
Which is a pcie x. 16. Slot. And this has got a 16 lanes.
This is where you put your graphics card on this board. However if we look at the slot down here you might say what s the same size. As this one this is a pcie x. 16.
Size slot. However this is actually a pcie x 4. Slot. It s only got four lanes inside this actual physically 16 x.
Slot. And so you need to look very carefully at your motherboard. When choosing and fitting pcie devices to make sure you get the best slot for your expansion card. So here.
If we look very closely. We can see this second pcie x. 16. Length.
Slot. Is labeled pcie x. 4. And if we look.
Very. Closely. Indeed. We could also notice.
It only has electrical pins running for the first quarter of its length. What are the great things about pcie is the high level of compatibility across versions and slot. Sizes so for example on this motherboard the pcie slots are pcie. 20 this is a time 16 pcie 20.
Slot but here i ve got a graphics card which is pcie 30. But this would work absolutely fine on this board. We could plug this in here like this go in..
There and er click into place and this would run at pcie. 20 speed and similarly if this was say i pcie. 20 card and it was a pcie. 30 slot again things would work at the pcie 20.
Speed. So you can mix and match across different versions and things will always run at the lower speed. It weaves the card of a stock you re using another important thing to note. Is that it s possible to use an expansion card who requires a low number of lanes in a pcie slot with a higher number of lanes.
So if we for example take this card out of here. This is a time 16 card at a time 16 slot. That obviously works fine. But here.
I ve got a usb. 3 adapter. Which is a pcie card a pcie x. One card and this would normally go into a pcie x 1.
Slot to put it in somewhere like that and that would work fine. But you could if you wanted to put this into there x 16. Stocks. We ve got a x 1 card.
In the time 16 stock and that would work absolutely fine this card needs one lane. It would take just one lane from this card. It would waste all yours that would work and you might be thinking. That s absolutely ridiculous.
Why would you do that on this motherboard clearly this would be ridiculous thing to do this x 1 card should go into a title 1 slot. But there are situations this can be very useful so for example if we look at this motherboard. This is a mini itx motherboard. A small form factor motherboard.
It s only got one slot. 8 times. 16 pcie slot and therefore here. If we wanted to fit something like our usb adapter.
We have no choice. We d have to put it in here. Because there s no other option. And again this is a bit of the cylinder shame we re wasting all these lanes.
But it s good to know you can put a lower lane card into a high lane slot. Because in some circumstances. It s a very useful thing to do now the other way around..
It s sometimes possible to fit a highland card into a lower lane pcie slot. So for example going back to this motherboard. You might remember here the x 4. Slot is x.
16. In lengths. So we could fit a x 8. Card.
Or a x 16 card into this slot. And it would work if only at times for speed now this point. Made. It s important to be clear.
But not all lower lanes slots will accept a higher lane card and looking back at this motherboard. You can see why there are physical ends on these x 1 slots for example. We stopped it happening. So i bring in the graphics card here this is the 16 times cog.
I clearly couldn t be fitted it wouldn t physically go into that slot. But you can get what are called open ended slots. So if we look at our final board of the video. This is a rock pro 64.
Single board computer and it s got a pcie x 4 slot. But it s open ended so we could potentially take here or 16 x. Card and plug it in and it would fit whether it work on this particular single board computer would depend on drivers and stuff. But hopefully.
We ve proved a principle you can sometimes fit for example a time 16 card into a times 4 slot. The pcie standard is i think one of the unsung heroes of modern desktop computing. And i hope you found this video useful to learn more about pcie slots. And how they can be used certainly.
I ve had a great time putting this video together because i ve had to get out lots of old motherboard like this one and that s made me think maybe i should make a video all about the history the evolution of the technologies on pc motherboards that might make an exciting video anyway that will happen i think in the future. But it s now stiller to present and if you enjoyed this video please press. That like button. If you haven t subscribed.
Please. Subscribe and i hope to talk to you again very soon. ” ..
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