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“Okay so you re probably nlooking at this screen. And wondering who in the world world are these four men that i nhave put on on the screen well these men. We re gonna look at at are very important in understanding ntheories of development so that s what we re gonna talk about in nthis in this video are the different theories. Nof development.
And it would be nice. If i could spell it nproperly. Laughs. There we go okay so up here.
We have freud over here. We have erikson over here is vygotsky and last. We have kohlberg so development let s start off by defining what it is development is the series of age related nchanges that happen over the course of a life nspan. So people pass through different stages in na specific order and each stage builds on top of nanother and we develop capacities through those nstages built upon the previous stage.
So these four men had four different ntheories of how we develop and the first we re going to take a look. Nat is freud sigmund freud. So freud proposed the psychosexual theory. Nof development.
So let s write that down here..
So he was he was important in starting off the npsychosexual theory. That describes how personality develops nduring childhood. That s also another key term. He looked at how we developed through nchildhood and he actually believed that early childhood nwas.
The most important most important age or period in which most nof our personalitie s developed. He said that most of our personality is nestablished by the age of five and he says that early experiences play a nlarge role in personality development and that continues nto influence behavior later in life and his theory was built upon five stages nwhich. We ll get into a little bit later. But if these five stages are completed successfully the result is a healthy npersonality and certain issues.
If they re not nresolved at a certain stage. And we move ahead to the next stage nthen. Something called fixation can happen. So that s another key term that we ll take na look at a little later.
So. That s the psychosexual theory of nfreud now the second key player or key person that we re gonna look at was nkohlberg sorry not kohlberg erikson and erikson talked about the psychosocial ndevelopment theory. So in this theory. He proposed eric nerikson proposed that personality development occurs nthrough one s entire lifespan so you can already see how it s a little ndifferent from freud.
Who said personality..
Most of nit s established in childhood so he believed that each stage of development again was focused on novercoming. A conflict and success or failure in dealing with nthese conflicts at each stage can impact overall nfunctioning of a person. And he proposed a theory that had eight nstages which we ll take a look at a little later so in each stage. People faced new nchallenges and the stages outcome.
Depends on how people nhandle. These challenges. The next person. Was lev vykotsky.
Who was na russian. Theorist. And what lev said. And developed.
Was the sociocultural cognitive ndevelopment theory. So socio cultural and how it s heavily ninfluenced by cognitive development. And what vygotsky believed was that nchildren learn actively and through hands on nexperiences. So it s a very it s an active process nthrough which through which we develop and his sociocultural theory suggests that nparents caregivers peers cultural beliefs attitudes and language nare all responsible for the development of this higher order nfunction of learning.
And he said that a child internalizes..
The information they get from the interaction nwith others. So he was all about how us as individuals nare influenced by those around us and the culture around nus and then that is that interaction is what nis able to guide children in their own performance nand in their own development and his theory stresses this importance of social interaction in the development of ncognition. So fun fact unfortunately vygotzky died. Nat.
The age of 38. So many of the parts of this theory are nactually incomplete and the last theorist. We re gonna take a nlook at was lawrence kohlberg and he developed the moral development ntheory. So he looked at how we develop our morals nthroughout life.
He focused on moral reasoning. Or why npeople think about think about the difference between nright and wrong so right versus wrong. He believed that moral reasoning. Depends depends on the level of cognitive ndevelopment and proposed that people pass through three levels of nmoral development.
So his was three stages but each of these three stages was further divided ninto two stages so altogether. There were six levels. And he came up with this theory after he did a lot of research with groups of nchildren. So he would present these children with a nbunch of moral dilemma situations and then after he would interview the kids to find out their reasoning behind their njudgements in each of the scenarios.
So he could ask them a nbunch of questions and try to analyze how they came to certain conclusions and nreasoning behind..
How they solved each of these nscenarios. So overall remember that freud and nerikson looked at personality. So they were focused on how personality ndevelops versus vygotsky and kohlberg were ninterested in how our cognition develops. So their theories were heavily heavily ninfluenced.
By cognitive theories. So. This is a broad overview of the ndifferent stages of development from four main and ndifferent perspectives. There are a lot of other and much many nmore perspectives.
But we re going to focus on these four and nso. The main takeaway from this is to keep in mind nthe. Similarities and differences as well as the focus of neach of the theories and in the next set of videos. I ll go ” .
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