identify which of the following specific areas are considered the building blocks This is a topic that many people are looking for. newyorkcityvoices.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, newyorkcityvoices.org would like to introduce to you The building blocks of language and perception: Alistair Knott at TEDxAthens . Following along are instructions in the video below:
“Tanya cushman. Nreviewer. Peter van de ven. Okay theodoros warmed you up perfectly nfor.
What what i have planned for you so what i have to i m going to you nshout out stuff as well. But it s going to be much easier nthan. What he made you shout okay so like he said ni. m interested in human language.
And what i m interested in in particular is how we can talk about the world. We can talk about what we see we can talk about what we do we can talk about nwhat. We see other people do for instance. Let me take a look what can i see right now ah.
So there s a guy down here nin the front row. He s wearing a beautiful shirt. Okay i can say it it s so easy for me i can just spontaneously. Describe nthe things.
I see you can look at me. Nand. Say something similar or maybe not ndepending on how you think or remember. Before nwhen those acrobats were here you could easily say who are climbing up silken ropes.
Nwhich. Are you know. Which are red. So it s very easy for us nto talk about what we see this picture kind of demonstrates.
This here s a person. He s got a speech bubble nand. He s talking about the world. And he s interacting nwith the world as well.
But the interesting thing is that even though it s very easy nfor us to do this thing. It s very hard to know how it works. Because there are two groups of scientists nwho study. This situation and they don t talk nto each other very much laughter.
So the uncharted water nthat. I want to get into today because the whole conference nis about uncharted waters is the uncharted waters in science. When you have two groups of scientists who are studying something nwhich is kind of the same and yet these two groups of people nare. N t talking to one another.
So. Let me just illustrate here we have one group of scientists ndescribed here as a linguist and he s looking at that speech bubble nand. He s focusing on that and he s not focusing non. How the man interacts with the world right then there s another group of scientists.
I ll call them well these are people nwho study perception. And they study motor control and actions nand. How we recognize actions in the world. How we perceive the world.
Let s call her a neuroscientist nor. We could call her a psychologist. It doesn t really matter. But the point is that she nis not studying language and so there s this interesting nsituation.
We have where we ve got two groups of scientists nwho are studying the same system. But they re studying ndifferent parts of the system. And not really talking to each other so linguists and nsensorimotor neuroscientists. Don t go to the same conferences.
They don t write in the same journals..
So we re in uncharted waters when we try and describe how it is nthat. We can talk about what we see so my talk is going to be into two parts. I ll start off just nby thinking a little bit about what linguists do nin their everyday jobs and i ll give you some examples of that and then later on i ll talk to you about nwhat sensorimotor neuroscientists. Do and i ll give you a very simple nexample of that as well and you ll be involved with a bit nof participation in each case.
So stay ready hope you can understand let me start with language. So the thing. Which linguists focus on nwhen. They re thinking about language is the fact that language is infinite.
It s an infinite system almost every sentence that you ever hear whether it s in greek or in english. You re hearing it for the first time for instance. These sentences nthat. I m saying now you ve never heard them before ni ve actually never said them before it comes out slightly different nevery time right it s the same when you read a newspaper.
You re reading sentences nthat you have never ever seen before and yet you can understand them. And you can produce sentences nthat. You ve never ever said. Before very easily.
This is something we do very easily nand linguists are fascinated by that and they want to know how it happens and clearly. It s not the words that you nare. Encountering for the first time. The words in the sentences.
Nall these words that i m saying here i learnt them when i was a child and you learnt them when you nwere in english class in school. I expect it s the way that the words nare put together and that s the novel thing. And that s well called syntax. It s a greek word right you guys invented.
It so. What i ll be ntelling. You about is syntax and this is a rather ncomplicated technical topic and i want to introduce it in a way nwhich is nice and concrete and simple and so the metaphor that i m going to use is one which i hope nthat you will understand it s a lego block. So words are what we nput together into sentences.
And so you can think of sentences nas being built up of things when you create a sentence like the sentences ni m producing at the moment i m building a sentence nbrick by brick out of something so. The question is what and when you listen to my sentences. You re taking my sentences. Nand breaking them apart.
In the same way. As you nmight decompose. A piece of lego. So the interesting thing about lego ni hope you can appreciate is that out of a single block.
I can build nall sorts of different shapes right so here i am building a tower. I broke it now i m building something else ni. Don t know what this is i think it actually looks nlike half a space invader or something and here s another one i want you to tell me what this is we re in athens. Right this is my tribute to athens.
Nin lego right laughter in fact when i was doing nmy presentation earlier someone pointed out nthat these blocks here would fall down. So it s a good thing ni didn t build the parthenon laughter. I hope you understand nthe point that i m making with a single building block of lego. It s like an atom nanother.
Great concept you can build all sorts nof different things by putting them together nin different. Ways and language is a little bit like that. And what i want to do nis to give you an example first of all in greek of what a sentence might look like if you re thinking about it nin terms of lego. Okay.
So one way you can think about a sentence is as a list of words a sequence nof words something like that but in fact. That s not the way nlinguists think about it at all for a linguist a sentence is a structure nthat you can plug words in to and i want to give you an example nof. What that might look like in lego. So here s a wee sentence.
I m going to do this in greek nactually. So bear with me. I hope you understand my accent. Okay.
So what i m going to do is to plug na few words into this sentence. Otan tha. Okay pao kira you know what s coming laughter applause for the benefit of those nwho are not greek. Speakers.
This is a nursery rhyme nor at least a children s song otan tha pao kira mou sto pazari yeah. That s right i feel like i m in church nif. You say it with me that s good laughter. This means when i go to the market.
My darling or my lady nor something like that laughter okay. Can you complete it for me ntha. Sou. Agoraso.
Ena. . Audience kokoraki. Very good very good okay.
Let s put it up in lego. So tha sou agoraso ena kokoraki you plugged it in for me. Okay. You knew what you ncould plug into that position and the interesting thing nabout this song i should translate when i go to the market.
My darling ni will buy you a kokoraki. Which is a rooster or some sort nof cockerel or something like that oh in fact before we carry on to kokoraki audience ki ki ri ki ki very good very good okay the cockerel goes ki ki ri ki ki yeah right yeah nnot in english it doesn t laughter applause no no no not in french applause. You d think that the ec might have nstandardized these animal noises by now but apparently not it should fall underneath nthe agricultural policy somewhere. But apparently not anyway.
So my point is nthat. If you think about a sentence as a structure nthat you can plug words into then this kokoraki song nis a really good example you can plug the word kokoraki in there. But you can also unplug it nand plug in other words in the second verse. We have skilaki nwhich goes bow bow.
I think is that right i m not sure so you can plug that one in instead and you can plug. Many words in there i think i spelt this one wrong. I m sorry. But gourounaki gourounaki nyou can plug in there instead and of course.
It s not just in that position there nthat you can plug in any word. Any of these words. You can unplug the lego block nand plug. In another word you can do it yourselves right.
Let s do one more just to practice so we ll unplug agoraso. So instead of buying the kokoraki. Nor. Whatever.
It is you could do something else nwith. The kokoraki like you could i don t know kiss it nor chase. It or slap. It or something laughter.
Let s stick with a let s not get our imaginations nrunning away with us. But we ll stick with a buying na poulaki or whatever. It is okay so having introduced that ni have to say i m being too simplistic by thinking of a sentence njust as a flat piece of lego that you can plug words in nat. Any position.
It s more complicated than that and just to demonstrate if you take some other word..
Some arbitrary word for that thing nand try and plug it in it doesn t go it doesn t fit. And so. It s too simplistic to think nof a sentence as just a flat structure and now i want to give you njust a tiny insight into the way that linguists nthink about sentences. So you have to pay attention to this this is an insight which was originated nby a man called noam chomsky.
Who you ve probably heard of whether in the field of politics nor the field of linguistics. He s wonderful had many many insights nbut a very interesting one which has permeated nthe hall of linguistics is that there s a single building block nfor the syntactic structure of sentences. This is how linguistics think about it nbut not how i want to because it s complicated. Nand.
Mathematical and formal. Let s just think about it nas. A special piece of lego. So if you imagine building a sentence.
You have lots and lots and lots nof. These structures here and you can plug together nin different ways to make different sentences. So i ll give you an example nfrom a very simple sentence. So i ll first create nthe structure of the sentence.
The way that chomsky nand linguists. Think about it so we take a few of these nand plug them together this is the sentence. A man grabbed a chair. This is an action.
We ll do later on because we ve all ngot chairs in front of us. And so we can do this action. Quite easily if you re a chomskyan linguist. You think there are ntwo positions in the sentence.
Where the word where the subject or the agent nof the sentence appears and there s two positions where the object or the patient nof. The sentence appears the thing that gets grabbed and then there s actually nlots of different places. Where the action appears. Nthe.
Verb. Appears and actually chomsky thinks that this structure nunderlies all sentences. Whether they re english. Nor.
Greek. Or swahili or japanese. His suggestion is that the only nthing that changes basically babies know this structure nalready when they are born if you re a chomskyan and all they have to learn nwhen they re growing up is which of these words nyou should pronounce in your particular language and so in english for instance. You pronounce.
The top man nand then grabs down here in chair and you get the man grabs. The chair. But in other languages like in greek nit s often this way. I believe grabs the man a chair.
It s like this in m. Ori. As well the language of the native people nin new zealand. Where i m from that s all i m going to say nabout language now now i actually want you nto try grabbing a chair.
Okay you ve all got a chair in front of you nunless you re in the front row in which case . I don t know ngrab your neighbor s or something. It s almost the simplest action nyou can imagine just reach forward and grab the chair. Just do it naturally ncompletely naturally as if you don t reach the person in front njust.
The chair. Okay laughter. What s the very first thing that you did it turns out there are building blocks neven in this very simple action. There are building blocks nthat construct this action.
Think about it..
What is the first thing that happened nwhen you grabbed out for that chair. It s nothing to do with movement nothing to do with movement. It s actually a decision to act you first of all have to decide to act. Because you could be doing other things you could have a memory nyou could be planning something or all sorts of things you could watch someone else ndo.
Something that s very different. But you said and when you decide to act nyou attend to yourself you know you re going to be nthe agent of the forthcoming action and so you attend to yourself. What s the next thing nthat. You think happens after you ve decided to act nwhat comes next do you think you move your arm next do it do it do it do it what comes next.
The next thing you do nis you look at the chair. Do it again do it again true right you look at the thing you re reaching for you need to know nwhat shape. It is and where it is and so you look at it what happens next then you start to reach for it. So you first decide to act nthen.
You look at it then you reach for it are we done no it turns out that while you nare reaching for the object. You attend to yourself again think about it when you move nyou re aware of your body. Moving and you re aware of your own personal self nin. A different way than you first were now you think about yourself as a pattern of movement nas.
An articulated entity and finally when you reach nthe object that you re grabbing for when you touch the chair. That s another sensation again because now you re aware of nthe chair. Again you re feeling the chair to start with you just saw it nbut. Now you re feeling it let me just step through this nin slightly more detail.
I ll summarize it for you let s say we re a man ngrabbing the chair okay we ll put a woman in the chair nto make it more interesting so the first thing that he does nis decide to act and then he attends to the chair. Hopefully there we are nhe attends to the chair and he gets a representation of the chair and then he starts to move so my animation skills nare not up too much there s someone talking nfrom pixar tomorrow he might not be very impressed laughter anyway. While he s moving nhe s re attending to himself. He s thinking of himself nas.
A pattern of movement and finally when he gets nto the end of the action he re attends to the chair. So if you think about this nlike neuroscientists think about it as building blocks nof actions and movements. It turns out that there is na building. Block behind this which is repeated several times.
There s a sensory operation. Nthat takes place in an initial context. And you get a piece of feedback. And that leads to a new context.
So if you re thinking in scientific terms. The way that neuroscientists nthink about this action. They think about it like this you re in some initial context nyou decide to act you get a representation of yourself. And then that gets you into a new context and in that new context you attend to the chair nand get a representation of the chair and then you get into another context nwhere you can do an action on the chair.
You decide to do a grasp action you re attend to yourself nwhile you re grasping and finally you re attend to the chair nwhen you reach and touch the chair. Okay that is what the neuroscientists sees when they look at nthe reach to grasp action. But now what i want you to do nis to compare that picture built up from basic building. Blocks with the picture that the linguist sees nof.
The sentence. Now i hope you can see that there is nan isomorphism between these two and this is what i think may be able to build a bridge nbetween these two areas. What the neuroscientist sees nas. The sensory representation of a man here and here is what the linguist sees nas the word and what the neuroscientist sees nas.
The sensory representation of the chair is what the linguist sees nas. The word so maybe what s happening nis that when we say a sentence. What we re doing is internally nsimulating or rehearsing the actual process of experiencing na man. Grabbing a chair and that s why the sentence nmeans what it does and if that s true nthen.
We re suddenly in a position where neuroscientists and linguists nare actually talking about the same thing and may be able nto start talking to each other thank you ” ..
Thank you for watching all the articles on the topic The building blocks of language and perception: Alistair Knott at TEDxAthens . All shares of newyorkcityvoices.org are very good. We hope you are satisfied with the article. For any questions, please leave a comment below. Hopefully you guys support our website even more.
“TEDxAthens is a world-class conference about Innovation, Creativity and Ideas based in Athens, Greece. TEDxAthens is one of the first TEDx events worldwide and the first ever TEDx event in Greece – started in May 2009. Its main goal is to develop and leverage the TED experience at a regional level, uniting innovators, thinkers, inspirational speakers, shakers, makers and breakers. TEDxAthens is curated by Dimitris Kalavros-Gousiou and organized by a team of 40 volunteers.nnIn the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)”,
TEDxAthens, Athens, ted talks, ted talk, tedx talk, Alistair Knott, ted x, ted, tedx talks, tedx, TEDx