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“Everybody my name is roger and i wanted to talk to you today about three three basic psychological principles. Plus. The application because what good is information without a use it so the first thing i want to talk about is as soon as the htm ism. A bunch of old british guys came up with this idea of association ism because they were curious to know how is it that humans learn as they re growing them.
The idea is essentially that we make connections between things ideas or mental states that are based off of proximity and time or space that sounds really technical and so it s make it easier for you i m gonna give you some examples. If we have bobby and suzi up there and bobby and suzi are walking down the street on opposite sides you probably don t think a bunch about the two of them together. It s bobby or susie. But if the two of them are walking together down the street you might think that they re a couple and that if we see them order again it will start to associate the two of them together and whenever we think about may we look for susie not far behind in dinner.
We always associate salt and pepper together the idea of them together is also associated with the idea of dinner. So when you think about the dining room table that associations with an idea not just objects so mental states and time when i was a child. I used to bake cookies with my mother and one time. He bakes three different cookies while they were cooling down.
So you went to work. Nobody could these are made with oatmeal sugar. And you re. The chocolate or peanut butter.
They used to be relative alyssa s. I mean three dozen of them and they all came back up ever since i ve never been able to think about youn another no big cookie and i like so i associate them with making me sick so again that s time and mental states. So chunking has no relation to the story. I just said and the magical number seven.
How do you eat an elephant. One answer that a lot of people give is one bite at a time not only do we eat the elephant one bite at a time. But it s possible to eat it one day at a time because there s no way i can fit the elephant in my stomach regardless of it it s all in one day. This is like a metaphor for our brain.
And we have information. It s the size of an elephant. Like the chapter you have to read for class. Then if we were to break down the information when day at time and in small pieces.
We ll be able to retain the information in a much more efficient manner that we would if we were to read the whole thing. All the way through also with numbers like this you ll quickly realize. This is something we use on a daily basis. Even though this is a long string of numbers.
It might be difficult to memorize it but to chunk the information we break it down and turn it into a telephone number these are just random random numbers. I put on the board. So don t try to call that my don t you know if it s a real phone number. But this is used in zip codes.
When we ve got the five and the four digit for the full nine numbers and john rose isis. If you look at your daughter sizes from kansas. It ll probably 8k a couple of numbers a dashed and some other numbers in another let me jump. It up so it s easier to remember also with credit cards most credit card numbers are sixteen digits on your cards chunk to four groups of four that makes it a lot easier for us to tell the number to a foreign operator or to put the number into an online web page when they re trying to work from amazon the magical number seven plus or minus two this is the number that was published by george miller in 1965.
And his research entitled pretty much the same and this article talks about how we as humans tend to only be able to work with about seven pieces of information annamarie at one time ever take the to it mayor varies from person to person from moment to moment and day to day. So the serial position effect and other nonsense. It s an idea that herman ebbinghaus figured out from his research on memory. He decided he wanted to research how humans learn information without associations to see you know if associationism was that good enough so he has he s nonsense syllables that you guys have learn about because you ll see them later on in your courses.
And the nonsense. Syllables have certain criteria they need to have a consonant in the beginning. A vowel sound and then another consonant words like cat dog fit this criteria. But he threw those words out because they already had an association and it makes them easier for us to memorize.
And it s research. He found that nonsense. Oh. It was like pe.
D. Your pet. Perhaps be similar. For it s.
Like pedal. And they end up being easier for him to memorize than the other nonsense syllables. So it shows that there is still somewhat of that association is. Impressive he came up with 2300 of these different syllables now i d like to you to ask you a question would you want to be one of the people in this research.
Where we have to memorize ten to a hundred different nuts and so little space up his criteria. No i wouldn t want to either so he didn t have anybody back then that wanted to so he memorized them all himself. And he was trying to do rote memorization and he didn t use any other like singing to the words like we might with the alphabet. Because that s a mnemonic device so he read them in a monotone like packs codes dub.
It s really boring but for one of his lists that he made he actually recited it fifteen thousand times in order to memorize the pattern. He would give himself test to see how much you remember whether or not it was like later the evening. The next day the next week. Sometimes it used to be almost a year after he memorized first list.
So he noticed this thing called the primacy of recency effect. We noticed the beginning or the end so here we retain a lot of information from the stuff. We learned at the beginning of a list. But then we kind of lose.
Some and then come back up and remember at the end. If you remember earlier. The phone number that i put up on the board. The phone number that was tucked into three sections.
Most of us tend to remember the area code kind of forget the little middle three numbers. But sometimes we have an easier time remembering the last four. It s a prime example of the primacy. A recency effect.
One of the reasons. This happens is because of our short term memory working memory and long term swords. But the information comes in the first part gives you towards return memory. We kind of work with it a little bit.
But while we re working with it the next pieces are in the short term memory since we can twe pays much attention to it the person our working memory go to long term storage. The middle bits kind of get lost out of our ears and then the end section of the information gets cleared up now that the middle bit is gone and it goes through the short term into our working memory and then often to long term stories. But that a little bit. It s all over the floor right now and this kind of bluff.
So i might need to pick up the pieces and look at it again. But what does it all mean why do we have this information. What uses it well a long time ago. I was taught how to study efficiently so i m going to tell you how these principles work into note cards.
I want to show you that i have three different colors. Here we have green kind of a pink red and then orange. So using association ism. I m going to say pick the green and all definitions are going to be green.
All people. And what they did are going to be red and then all theories and information about the theory is going to go on the orange cards that way every time i see card. I aughtta matheno is from the definition or a person or an idea now as kien. You don t necessarily want to start off with the big stack.
Because this is a lot of information. This is like the elephant so when you first make you know cards pick five to ten pieces of information from your chapter and make a small stack of note cards so do them for about ten or twenty minutes that day put them to the side. The next day. I want you to take another five to ten pieces of information make another small stack of note cards go through it one two twice and then add it to the other stack and then go through that stack that way you ll be working with all the information rehearsing the stuff.
You learned at the beginning. And you ll be adding to the stuff and associations will be growing bigger and bigger. And as your stack gets bigger eventually your associations are going to be you with the entire chapter and eventually the test which you guys will be taking at the end of the chapters. So but with the primacy recency effect.
If you notice here these three colors that i ll play going to the green and i ll remember those and i ll remember the orange. But the bits in the middle. I probably won t remember as well. But if i cut the deck in half and stack the back the parts in the middle are now at the beginning and the end so if i go through the deck.
A second time then i ll start to recognize that this information will be retained more easily and the parts in the middle. I may not remember as much but since i worked on an earlier then it s still going to be somewhere in my long term consciousness. It s not really gonna work if you were to cut the deck in half again because it ll just put things back the way they were so what you ll need to do is go through the deck of note cards cut it in half once go through it a second time and then shuffle. If you read epeat the process.
You ll be able to have all the information will be mixed up together and instead of association in one card with the one right next to it you ll start to associate. All of them together by working with it a little bit at a time if you practice for 10 to 15 minutes a day by the time test time comes around all the information will be good as gold and your long term memory and you ll age the test. So i want you guys just remember this stuff and i ll ” ..
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“A quick video explaining the basics of Associationism, Chunking and the Primacy-Recency Effect”,