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“The HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is used in most pages of the World Wide Web. HTML files contain both the primary text content and additional formatting markup, i.e. sequences of characters that tell web browsers how to display and handle the main content. The markup can specify which parts of text should be bold, where the headings are, or where tables, table rows, and table cells start and end. Though most commonly displayed by a visual web browser, HTML can also be used by browsers that generate audio of the text, by braille readers that convert pages to a braille format, and by accessory programs such as email clients.nnTo author and test HTML pages, you will need an editor and a web browser. HTML can be edited in any plain text editor. Ideally, use one that highlights HTML markup with colors to make it easier to read. Common plain text editors include Notepad (or Notepad++) for Microsoft Windows, TextEdit for Mac, and Kate, Gedit, Vim, and Emacs for Linux.nnMany others editors exist with a wide range of features. While some offer WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) functionality, that means hiding the markup itself and having to auto-generate it. WYSIWYG options are never as clean or transparent or as useful for learning compared with real code-based text editors.nnTo preview your documents, you ll need a web browser. To assure most viewers will see good results, ideally you will test your documents in several browsers. Each browser has slightly different rendering and particular quirks.nnThe most common browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera. To assure that your documents are readable in a text-only environment, you can test with Lynx.nnHyperlinks are the basis of navigation of the internet. They are used for moving around among sections of the same page, for downloading files, and for jumping to pages on other web serversnBefore we get into creating a hyperlink (or “link” for short), we need to discuss the difference between an Absolute URL and a Relative URL. First, the Absolute URL can be used to direct the browser to any location. For example, an absolute URL might be:nnhttps://en.wikibooks.org/nnHowever, when there is a need to create links to multiple objects in the same directory tree as the web page, it is a tiring procedure to repeatedly type out the entire URL of each object being linked to. It also requires substantial work should the webpage move to a new location. This is where Relative URL s come in. They point to a path relative to the current directory of the web page. For example:nnhome.htmln./home.htmln../home.htmlnThis is a relative URL pointing to a HTML file called home.html which resides in the same directory (folder) as the current web page containing the link. Likewise:nnimages/top_banner.jpgnnLinking to a location within a page with Anchorn======================================nSometimes specifying a link to a page isn t enough. You might want to link to a specific place within a document. The book analogue of references of this type would be saying “Third paragraph on page 32” as opposed to just saying “page 32”. Let s say that you want a link from document a.html to a specific location in a document b.html. Then you start by giving an id to the a particular paragraph in b.html. nnSpecial targetsn=============n_blanknA new blank window is opened to load the linked document into. The location in the address bar (if shown in the new window) gives the hyperlink location of the new resource requested by the user s clicking on the hyperlink.n_selfnThe current frame that contains the document and the link to be clicked on is used to load the linked document; if the link is part of a document that occupies a whole window then the new document is loaded into the whole window, but in the case of a frame, the linked document is loaded into the current frame. The location won t be shown in the address bar unless the linked document was loaded into the main window as opposed to a child frame of a frameset.n_parentnThe linked document is loaded into the parent frame of the one containing the link to be clicked on; this is only important in nested framesets. If window W contains frameset F consisting of a child frame A and also a child frame B that is itself a frameset FF with “grandchildren” frames C and D (giving us Window W with three visible panes A, C and D), then clicking a hyperlink in the page in frame D with a target=_parent will load the linked document into D s parent frame, that is, into frame B, so replacing frameset FF that was previously defined as the content of frame B. Documents C and D that were the frames of this frameset FF in B will be entirely replaced and this will leave only frame A and the new document from the hyperlink left in frame B, all inside the main frameset F in window W. The location is only shown in the address bar of the window if the parent frame happened to be the window itself.”,
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